A Guide to Buzkashi in Tajikistan:
Where Can I See Buzkashi
(and how to stay safe)

Buzkashi is more than just a sport. Here's how to see Buzkashi in Tajikistan - and how to get the most of your experience.

Rooted in the region's nomadic heritage, Buzkashi is more than just a sport. It is a spectacle that captures the essence of Tajik culture and the spirit of the nomadic way of life.

In the heart of Central Asia, amidst the rugged landscapes of Tajikistan, echoes the thundering hooves of a centuries-old equestrian tradition – Buzkashi.

We take a look at the history, rules, and spirit of Buzkashi in Tajikistan.

(Skip to the end for our brief & experience attending a Buzkashi game in Tajikistan). 


History of Buzkashi Tajikistan
Buzkashi Rules
Buzkashi in Tajikistan
Buzkashi Festivals in Tajikistan
Tajikistan Buzkashi Identity Link
Buzkashi Challenges & Future
Attending a Buzkashi Game in Tajikistan; Our Experience

History of Buzkashi Tajikistan

Buzkashi, which translates to "goat pulling" in Persian, is an equestrian sport with deep historical roots across Central Asia.

Originating in the nomadic cultures of the region, Buzkashi has evolved over centuries, becoming a symbol of strength, skill, and camaraderie.

Nomadic Origins

The roots of Buzkashi can be traced back to the nomadic tribes of Central Asia, where it emerged as a way for riders to display their equestrian prowess and demonstrate their strength and courage.

The sport served both as a means of entertainment and as a training ground for military skills.


Initially, Buzkashi involved riders competing to seize a goat carcass from their opponents and carry it across a designated goal line. The goat, representing the spoils of war, added a symbolic layer to the sport, reflecting the nomadic lifestyle and the challenges of survival in harsh terrains.


Over time, Buzkashi evolved, adapting to changing cultural and social landscapes.

While the sport retains its equestrian and competitive elements, variations exist in the rules, the type of animal used (often a calf or a sheep), and the way the game is played.

Tajikistan Buzkashi and Persian New Year Tour (March)
Dushanbe to Ancient Sogdia and the Fergana Valley.
See Buzkashi, Central Asia’s 'most dangerous sport',
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From 2,450 USD per person.


Buzkashi Rules

Buzkashi is not merely a contest of strength; it is a dynamic display of skill, strategy, and teamwork.

The rules of the game vary across different regions, but certain fundamental principles define this exhilarating equestrian spectacle.

1. The Kokpar

The central objective of Buzkashi is to score points by carrying the carcass, known as the "kokpar," across the opponent's goal line. The kokpar is a heavy and often unruly object, requiring immense strength and agility from the riders.

2. Chapandazan

Buzkashi players, known as "chapandazan," are highly skilled equestrians who master the art of horsemanship.

These riders possess exceptional control over their horses, enabling them to navigate the chaotic field with precision.

3. Goal Lines

The playing field, known as the "kishtak," is marked with goal lines at each end.

The chapandazan aim to carry the kokpar across the opponent's goal line to score points. The sheer size and weight of the carcass make this task challenging, requiring collaborative efforts.

4. Teams and Strategies

Buzkashi is typically played with two teams, each consisting of numerous chapandazan.

The players strategise to wrest control of the kokpar from their opponents, employing tactics such as teamwork, speed, and physical prowess to outmanoeuvre the opposing team.

5. Whips and Tactics

Chapandazan wield whips, not only to maintain control over their horses but also to fend off opponents and protect the kokpar.

The strategic use of whips adds an element of intensity to the game, as riders jostle for possession of the coveted prize.

Buzkashi in Tajikistan

Tajikistan's version of Buzkashi is deeply intertwined with the nation's cultural fabric.

The sport transcends mere competition; it is a celebration of horsemanship, courage, and the enduring nomadic spirit that has shaped Tajikistan's history.

Why is Buzkashi in Tajikistan Different?

Buzkashi in Tajikistan isn't a team sport. It's every man for himself. What makes Tajikistan Buzkashi interesting is that it isn't a team game. It's an individual sport. This means you can have 500-600 riders all competing against one another. 

Prizes are given to individuals. 

Festive Occasions

Buzkashi events are often held during festive occasions, bringing communities together to witness the spectacle.

Celebrations may coincide with traditional festivals, weddings, or other significant events, adding an extra layer of joy and camaraderie to the contests.

Spectator Involvement

Buzkashi is not a passive spectator sport; it is a communal experience where onlookers actively engage with the proceedings.

Cheers, applause, and vocal expressions of support fill the air as chapandazan display their skills and vie for control of the kokpar.

Traditional Attire

The chapandazan don traditional attire that reflects the cultural heritage of Tajikistan.

Elaborate robes, colourful headgear, and embroidered garments add a visual flair to the equestrian performances, embodying the fusion of tradition and athleticism.

Musical Accompaniment

Buzkashi events are often accompanied by traditional music, adding a rhythmic soundtrack to the thundering hooves and the clamour of the game.

The music enhances the festive atmosphere, turning Buzkashi into a multi-sensory celebration.

Buzkashi Festivals in Tajikistan

Buzkashi festivals in Tajikistan are grand affairs that draw participants and spectators alike from across the region.

These festivals serve as showcases for the equestrian skills of chapandazan and offer a unique window into Tajikistan's rich cultural heritage.

The Buzkashi Festival in Khorog

Khorog, nestled in the picturesque Pamir Mountains, hosts an annual Buzkashi festival that attracts participants and enthusiasts from Tajikistan and neighbouring countries.

The breathtaking backdrop of the Pamirs adds a majestic touch to the equestrian contests.

Traditional Ceremonies

Buzkashi festivals often commence with traditional ceremonies that pay homage to the nomadic traditions of the region.

These ceremonies may include rituals, dances, and presentations that highlight the cultural significance of Buzkashi in Tajikistan.

Competitive Spirit

The festivals showcase the competitive spirit of chapandazan as they vie for supremacy in gripping Buzkashi matches. The intensity of the contests, coupled with the movements of the riders, captivates audiences and fosters a sense of community spirit.

Cultural Exhibitions

Buzkashi festivals go beyond the equestrian contests, featuring cultural exhibitions that showcase Tajikistan's diverse heritage.

Traditional crafts, music performances, and culinary delights contribute to the holistic experience of these vibrant celebrations.


Tajikistan Buzkashi Identity Link

Beyond the spectacle and festivity, Buzkashi in Tajikistan holds a deeper significance in Tajikistan's identity.

It is a link to the nation's nomadic past, a testament to the resilience of tradition, and a symbol of the enduring spirit of the Tajik people.

Preserving Nomadic Heritage

In a rapidly modernising world, Buzkashi stands as a living testament to Tajikistan's nomadic heritage.

The sport preserves the skills, rituals, and cultural nuances of a bygone era, offering a glimpse into the challenges and triumphs of the nomadic lifestyle.

Community Bonding

Buzkashi fosters a sense of community bonding, bringing people together to celebrate shared traditions.

The sport serves as a unifying force, transcending regional differences and creating a collective identity rooted in the nomadic history of Tajikistan.

Intergenerational Transmission

The practice of Buzkashi is often passed down through generations, with experienced chapandazan mentoring younger riders. This intergenerational transmission ensures the continuity of skills, techniques, and the cultural significance of the sport.

Nomadic Values

Buzkashi embodies the values of nomadic life, including resilience, adaptability, and a deep connection to nature.

The chapandazan navigate the challenges of the game with a spirit reminiscent of nomadic warriors, reflecting the enduring legacy of these values in Tajikistan.

Challenges and Future of Buzkashi in Tajikistan

While Buzkashi remains a revered tradition, it faces challenges in the contemporary world.

The preservation of the sport and its cultural significance requires a delicate balance between tradition and modernity.

Modernisation and Infrastructure

As Tajikistan undergoes modernisation, the traditional spaces for Buzkashi events may face challenges.

Balancing the need for modern infrastructure with the preservation of authentic Buzkashi settings is crucial to maintaining the cultural integrity of the sport.

Changing Lifestyles

The nomadic lifestyle that gave birth to Buzkashi is gradually diminishing.

As lifestyles change, the transmission of Buzkashi skills and cultural values becomes a challenge. Efforts to integrate Buzkashi into contemporary contexts, while preserving its essence, are essential for its continuity.

Globalisation and Commercialisation

Buzkashi's exposure to global audiences presents both opportunities and challenges.

While international recognition can enhance the visibility of the sport, there is a risk of commercialisation diluting its cultural roots.

As always, balancing global engagement with the preservation of authenticity is a delicate task.

Attending a Buzkashi Game in Tajikistan; Our Experience

The following is the notes from our travel to a Buzkashi game in Tajikistan. 

It's some top tips on attending a Buzkashi game in Tajikistan, as well as how to attend a Buzkashi game, and other useful notes!

  • We left Dushanbe at 07:30 and arrived at noon.
  • You need a minimum of 3 hours to watch the game.
  •  Bring a passport or photocopies of the passport as police might ask for identification.
  • Tajik women will all leave when the game starts- the same for wrestling, this is not seen as fit for female eyes.
  • Like the wrestling Tajikistan women do not attend the buzkashi.
  • Some riders work as teams.
  • The riders wear Russian tank helmets (potentially left over from Afghanistan).
  • Some tourists/locals stand on goal mounds but this is dangerous. It will not make you popular with the locals.
  • The sheep is around 50 lbs. The head is cut off a day or so in advance and sewn up and soaked in water.
  • Ask the riders to show you how they hold the carcass. They use a small hand-held noose.
  • The saddle uses real bone to hold onto.
  • Go and check out the prizes, ranging from camels, cars and carpets.
  • Basically... there are no rules (although they do say no hitting horses or people etc).
  • Riders’ legs are wrapped several times with bandages to protect them in the crush.
  • A local man with a megaphone tells stories for the amusement of the crowd and riders.
  • Buzkashi really is very dangerous. It is paramount to have a first aid kit and iodine at hand. 
  • It is easy to stay on the hill out of harm's way, especially if you have kids. The horses can very quickly charge up the hill and no time for onlookers to get out of the way. Do not stand on the Buzkashi goals (two earth mounds) as will not make you popular.
  • Local food will be available.


But Buzkashi in Tajikistan is not merely a sport. It is a living legacy that gallops through the centuries, connecting the present to the nomadic past. No matter the challenges it may face, Buzkashi in Tajikistan will surely not disappear entirely.

From the festive gatherings in Khorog to the spirited contests in the Pamir Mountains, Buzkashi serves as a vibrant thread in the tapestry of Tajikistan's cultural heritage. As Buzkashi continues to captivate audiences and riders alike, it stands as a reminder that traditions persist through time and indeed country borders.

In the heart of Tajikistan, where the echoes of hooves and the cheers of onlookers blend, Buzkashi remains a symbol of cultural pride, connecting generations and embodying the timeless spirit of Central Asia.

Koryo Group 
Tajikistan Tours


Zoe Stephens

Zoe is the marketing manager and a tour leader at Koryo Tours.

Her love of meeting new people and exploring new cultures has led her to study several languages including German, Japanese, and Chinese. Having lived in several different countries across 4 continents, she often writes about languages and culture in her blogs and is very active on social media. During the COVID-19 pandemic, she was 'stuck' in Tonga for 1.5 years after a weekend away. Ask her for some stories! 

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